Concept Review: Track Those Spots!
Newton's Laws:

Newton's 1^{st} Law

A body at rest tends to remain at rest. A body in motion
tends to remain in motion at a constant speed in a constant
direction unless acted upon by an outside, unbalanced force.


Newton's 2^{nd} Law

The acceleration of a body is inversely proportional to its
mass and directly proportional to the force applied.


Newton's 3^{rd} Law

For every force there is an equal reaction force in the
opposite direction.

About the latitude/longitude grid and geometry:
On the latitude/longitude grid, the longitude lines are drawn
at 10^{o} increments. (Remember, if they were drawn at
1^{o} increments, there would be 360 circling all the way
around the sun!)
Latitude lines are also are drawn at 10^{o}
intervals. (Remember, the northern pole of the sun would be at
90^{o} N and the southern pole is at 90^{o}
S.)
Displacement, velocity and acceleration:
Converting distance from degrees to radians

A full circle contains 360^{o} or
2 pi radians
Degrees = # of degrees
Radians = # of radians

360^{o} = 2 pi rad
180^{o} = pi rad
_{}

Calculating average velocity

Average velocity is the rate of change of distance
Don't forget  velocity is a vector quantity with a
direction.

Average angular velocity:
Angular distance / time
w = q/t
Linear average velocity:
linear distance / time
v = d/t

Calculating centripetal acceleration

Centripetal acceleration is the type of acceleration an object
has because it is moving in a circle (not a straight line.)
We assume here that average velocity is constant.
Don't forget  the direction of centripetal acceleration
is always toward the center of the circular path.

Using translational velocity
a_{c} = v^{2} / r
Since v = rw, you can substitute rw for v in this equation
to obtain centripetal acceleration
using angular velocity:
a_{c} = w^{2} r
Note: in both cases r = path radius

